Question: Many animals, including humans, tend to avoid direct eye contact and even patterns that look like eyes. Some insects, including moths, have evolved eye-spot patterns on their wings to help ward off predators. Scaife (1976) reports a study examining how eye-spot patterns affect the behavior of birds. In the study, the birds were tested in a box with two chambers and were free to move from one chamber to another. In one chamber, two large eye-spots were painted on one wall. The other chamber had plain walls. The researcher recorded the amount of time each bird spent in the plain chamber during a 60-minute session. Suppose the study produced a mean of M = 37 minutes on the plain chamber with SS = 288 for a sample of n = 9 birds. (Note: If the eye spots have no effect, then the birds should spend an average of µ = 30 minutes in each chamber.)
a. Is this sample sufficient to conclude that the eye-spots have a significant influence on the birds’ behavior? Use a two-tailed test with α = .05.
b. Compute the estimated Cohen’s d to measure the size of the treatment effect.
c. Write a sentence that demonstrates how the outcome of the hypothesis test and the measure of effect size would appear in a research report.