Question: The International City Managers Association conducts a study of bureaucratic quality across a random sample of 120 U.S. cities. Bureaucratic quality measures the degree to which agencies engage in strategic planning and generate organizational outcomes that closely match their organizational missions and goals. Quality is measured on a low, medium, and high scale. The Association’s researchers believe that bureaucratic quality will have a positive effect on economic development within the cities. Apply of the five steps of hypothesis testing and interpret the results.
|Table 2. Economic Development by Bureaucratic Quality|
|Economic development||Bureaucratic quality||Total|
Χ2 = 7.151 (from SPSS), df=4, p=0.128